Galileo Galilei (15. 2. 1564 - 8. 1. 1642) - An Italian scientist, astronomer and philosopher. He is considered one of the founders of modern experimental science. He was known as a technical innovator: for example, constructed telescope for observing the sky, which then further improve them. Do also created history in disputes with the Catholic Church.
Galileo was born in the Italian city of Pisa. His father wished son studied medicine and became a doctor. To study the Galileo definitely had talent, interested him but rather science, medicine, therefore, left and began to dedicate himself entirely mathematics. Already in 1586 wrote the book La Balancitta ??i>, and three years later he was appointed head of the department of mathematics at Pisa. On the site but did not last long and in 1592 he started work as a professor of mathematics at the University of Padua.
The first Galileo telescope was constructed in 1609 and further improve them. With him he could make out must lunar craters or sunspots, also discovered four moons of Jupiter, for example, a ring of Saturn. Their opinions, based on calculations and observations of the universe, but was getting into disputes with the Church, which held a conservative view of how the world works. Already in 1604 is supported by the views of Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus with his heliocentric theory. Church attacks grew stronger after the release of the Galilean publications Debate on the Two Chief World Systems (1632), which indirectly defended the Copernican theory. Twice he was called to Rome before an ecclesiastical tribunal, torture and severe punishment probably saved him a great age, and the fact that after pressure to renounce their views. Galileo died under house arrest in Arcetri, was rehabilitated by Pope John Paul in 1992.