Louis IX. French (25. 4. 1214 - 25. 8. 1270) - French king of the old Frankish Capetian. During his reign made significant reforms. It was a strongly religious, initiated the Crusades, later preferred an ascetic way of life. In 1297, Pope Boniface VIII. declared a saint.
The parents were Louis Louis VIII. and his wife Blanche of Castile. French king was prematurely crowned shortly after the sudden death of his father in November 1226. The actual control of the country as a minor king's mother ensured that a combination of diplomacy and military managed to enlist the help of opposition forces and deter potential enemies.
Piety, fanatic, Louis received from his mother. In 1234 he became engaged to Margaret of Provence, which was like a devoted Christian. Then, himself took over the government. For France, Louis managed to get one of the most precious Christian relics: a crown of thorns Jesus Christ. Bought it from Baldwin II., The last Latin Emperor of Constantinople. To crown in Paris had built the Holy Chapel (Sainte-Chapelle), which protected other Christian valuables acquired by Louis IX. (Eg alleged spear, which was pierced Christ or fragments of the cross on which he was crucified. In 1806 the crown along with other relics stored in the vault Notre Dame.)
In 1244, Louis became seriously ill. After recovering declared a crusade, and four years later with an army sailed to Egypt. After the initial success of the expedition has ended in disaster and the king himself, sick and weak, he fell into captivity. Was free to return for the Crusaders occupied the city of Damietta and ransom. After some time spent in the Holy Land and in April 1254 with his family and entourage on his way home. Make a note of hardship and failure campaign began to lead a humble life with even greater emphasis on devotion and service to the Church. In recent years, the government has introduced several reforms coin. Despite the failure of the Crusades, King decided to organize another campaign. This time he headed the army into Africa Tunis. The result was even more tragic: the king's son John died, and soon Tristan Louis himself. France then returned only a handful of crusaders who survived infectious diseases and hassle of travel.